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Tropical Dental Journal - 1st Pan African international dental journal


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Published in French in Tropical Dental Journal Volume 46 - March 2023 pages 13-19

Docteur Saint Honoré Ohoueu Seka Antioxidant activity of Euphorbia hirta and Nauclea latifolia, two African medicinal plants useful for traditional medicineAntioxidant activity of Euphorbia hirta and Nauclea latifolia, two African medicinal plants useful for traditional medicine est évalué 1 étoiles par les abonnés Tropical Dental Journal Online

Authors : S.H. Ohoueu Seka, T. Okpekon Aboula, J.A. Adouko Aka, B.N. Djyh, M. Ayé, A.P. Kouamé, A. dit Philippe Bidié - Ivory Coast


Résumé

Introduction : Les cancers buccaux sont multiples parmi lesquels les carcinomes épidermoïdes buccaux. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer l’activité antioxydante des organes d’Euphorbia hirta et de Nauclea latifolia récoltés dans la région du Sud-Est de la Cote d’Ivoire susceptibles de prévenir et de traiter les carcinomes épidermoïdes.
Matériel et méthodes : Le criblage phytochimique, effectué après la préparation des extraits aqueux et hydroéthanolique de Nauclea latifolia et d’Euphorbia hirta, a été obtenu en se basant sur les tests colorimétriques de caractérisation et de chromatographie sur couche mince pour déceler les grands groupes de métabolites secondaires. L’activité antioxydante des extraits a été évaluée par les tests de DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) et la technique de réduction du fer "FRAP" (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power).
Résultats : Les principaux groupes chimiques bioactifs sont les polyphénols totaux, les flavonoïdes, les tanins, les acides phénoliques et les saponosides. Le décocté aqueux de Nauclea latifolia à 200 µg/mL a inhibé environ 87,2% des radicaux libres DPPH. Cependant, le décocté aqueux d’Euphorbia hirta à 200 µg/mL a neutralisé 72,6% de radicaux libres DPPH. Selon le test de FRAP, les décoctés aqueux de Nauclea latifolia et d’Euporbia hirta possèdent de fortes capacités antioxydantes avec des valeurs respectives de 114,2 et 119,1 µMolEq Trolox/EXS.
Conclusion : Les extraits des deux plantes ont montré une forte activité antioxydante sur les radicaux libres. L’écorce de tige de Nauclea latifolia et des tiges feuillées d’Euphorbia hirta, utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, susciterait de plus en plus d’intérêt pour la prévention et le traitement des cancers.

Abstract
Antioxidant activity of Euphorbia hirta and Nauclea latifolia, two African medicinal plants useful for traditional medicine

Introduction: Euphorbia hirta et Nauclea latifolia are medicinal plants widely used by African populations to treat several pathologies. There are many oral cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increased risk of developing oral squamous cell carcinomas is related to the endogenous overproduction of pro-oxidant agents of inflammatory origin, nutritional deficiency in oxidant and environmental exposures to pro-oxidant factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Euphorbia hirta and Nauclea latifolia study organs harvested in the South-East region of Ivory Coast that may prevent and treat oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Material and methods: The phytochemical screening, carried out after the separation of the aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Nauclea latifolia and Euphorbia hirta was obtained based on colorimetric characterization tests and thin layer chromatography to detect the large groups of secondary metabolites. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using the DPPH reduction tests. The reducing power of the extracts with respect to the ferric ion (FRAP) was evaluated.
Results: The main bioactive chemical groups highlighted in te study are total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, phenomic acids and saponosides. Aqueous decoctate of Nauclea latifolia at 200 μg/mL for 30 min has an ability to inhibit about 87.2% of DPPH free radicals more than the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia. In contrast, the aqueous decoctate of Euphorbia hirta at 200 µg/mL neutralized 72.6% of DPPH free radicals. FRAP test showed that aqueous decoctate of Euphorbia hirta has scavenging ability (119.1 µMolEqTrolox/EXS) to reduce iron more than aqueous decoct of Nauclea latifolia (119.1 µMolEqTrolox /EXS).
Conclusion: The extracts from of two plants studied showed strong antioxidant activity on free radicals. The use in improved traditional medicines of the bark stem of Nauclea latiflia and leafy stem of Euphorbia hirta, stimulating or modulating genes or cells suppressing tumors or uncontrolled proliferation of free radicals, would arouse more and more interest in prevention and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

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